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Global Data Governance

Database of Policies

PUBLISHED: Oct. 6, 2020

Foreign Policy Analytics’ (FPA’s) Global Data Governance Power Map details emerging trends in private companies’ and governments’ data collection practices. These trends include the proliferation of data privacy and data localization laws, governments’ expanding data collection practices, changes in global encryption laws, the rising use of AI for data collection, and the proliferation of COVID-19 tracking apps. Throughout the Power Map series, laws and policies related to these trends are catalogued and graphically broken down for readers.

As a reference and navigable tool for Insiders, all of the practices and regulations chronicled in the Power Map series have been consolidated in FPA’s Global Data Governance Database below. This database provides a comprehensive regional and country-level breakdown of global data governance practices in 111 countries worldwide. For easy navigation, this searchable database can be sorted by country or region. For a deeper dive into each global data governance practice chronicled below, see the corresponding Power Map section.

PART TWO OF TWOEvolving Government Data Collection Practices

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Angola

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Data Protection Law (Law no. 22/11) (2011/2017)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Argentina

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Personal Data Protection Law (PDPL) (2000)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Local copy
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Argentina’s government response to COVID-19.

Australia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Federal Privacy Act (1988)

  • National data protection authority
  • Breach notification
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Information Privacy Act (2009)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Australia’s government response to COVID-19.

Austria

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions
  • Cybersecurity provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Datenschutzgesetz (2000)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Bahrain

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law No. 30 of 2018 with respect to Personal Data Protection (PDPL) (2008/2020)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Belarus

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Information Protection Law & the Law on Personal Data (2008/2020)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Import/export controls
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Belgium

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Belgium’s government response to COVID-19.

Bermuda

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Personal Information Protection Act (PIPA) (2016)

  • National data protection authority
  • Cybersecurity provisions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Bolivia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Bill of Personal Data Protection (2019)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data protection officers
  • Breach notification
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Ley General de Telecomunicaciones, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación – Ley 167 de 08 agosto de 2011 (in Spanish)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law on Protection of Personal Data ("Official Gazette of BIH,” NOS. 49/06, 76/11 and 89/11) (2006/2011)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Botswana

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Act–Act No. 32 (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Brazil

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Brazilian General Data Protection Law (LGPD) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Brazil Internet Act (2014)
  • Protection of Personal Data Bill (2011) (in Portuguese)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • General right to encryption
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Brazil’s government response to COVID-19.

Bulgaria

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law for Protection of Personal Data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Canada

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (‘PIPEDA’) & Regional Acts (2000)

  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • Import/export controls
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Canada’s government response to COVID-19.

Cape Verde

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Law (Law 133)(2001/2013)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Chile

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Law 19,628/1999 “On the Protection of Private Life,” commonly referred to as “Personal Data Protection Law” (1999/2011)

  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

China

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Cybersecurity Law (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • The Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Strengthening the Network Information Protection (2012).
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Import/export controls
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Read more about China’s government response to COVID-19.

Colombia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Articles 15 and 20 of Colombian Constitution (1991/2008)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Statutory Law 1266 of 2008 (Law 1266d)
  • Regulatory Decree 1377
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Congo

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)
  • No data
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Costa Rica

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Law No. 7975, the Undisclosed Information Law (2000)

  • National data protection authority
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Cuba

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)
  • No data
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Croatia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Act on Personal Data Protection
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Cyprus

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • The Processing of Personal Data (Protection of the Individual) Law
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Czech Republic

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on Personal Data Protection
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Data subjects are notified of surveillance by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Denmark

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Act on Processing of Personal Data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Denmark’s government response to COVID-19.

Dominican Republic

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Law No. 172-13 on the Protection of Personal Data (2013)

  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Ecuador

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Protection of Privacy and Personal Data Bill 2016

Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Cellphone data access

El Salvador

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)
  • No data
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Ley de Comercio Electronico y Comunicaciones
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Egypt

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Draft Law (2020)

  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Import/export controls
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Estonia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Data Protection Act
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Ethiopia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Freedom of the Mass Media and Access to Information Proclamation No. 590 (2008)

  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Import/export controls
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Ethiopia’s government response to COVID-19.

Finland

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Account Act (1997)
  • Personal Data Act
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects are notified of surveillance by intelligence services
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • General right to encryption
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Read more about Finland’s government response to COVID-19.

France

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Personal Data Act
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • General right to encryption
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about France’s government response to COVID-19.

Germany

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Federal Data Protection Act (in English)
  • Bundesdatenschutzgesetz - BDSG (in German)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Data subjects are notified of surveillance by intelligence services
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Germany’s government response to COVID-19.

Ghana

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Act (Act 843) (2012)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Read more about Ghana’s government response to COVID-19.

Greece

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Honduras

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law for the Protection of Confidential Personal Data (2019)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Hungary

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Act on Informational Self-Determination and Freedom of Information
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Hungary’s government response to COVID-19.

Iceland

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on the Protection and Processing of Personal Data (1989)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Read more about Iceland’s government response to COVID-19.

India

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Personal Data Protection Bill (2020)

  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Local copy
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Information Technology Act (2000)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
Encryption Policies
  • Mandatory minimum or maximum encryption strength
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about India’s government response to COVID-19.

Indonesia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Government Regulation No. 71 of 2019 Regarding Provisions of Electronic Systems and Transactions (2019)

  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 2008 Concerning Electronic Information and Transactions
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Indonesia’s government response to COVID-19.

Iran

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Personal Data Protection and Safeguarding Draft Act (2018)

  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on Electronic Commerce
  • Law 71063 on Computer Crimes
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Iran’s government response to COVID-19.

Ireland

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Data Protection Act (1988)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Israel

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Protection of Privacy Law (1992)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Cybersecurity provisions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Privacy Protection Act (1981)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Italy

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Decreto Legislativo 30 giugno 2003, n. 196 - Codice in materia di protezione dei dati personali (in Italian)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Italy’s government response to COVID-19.

Jamaica

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Data Protection Bill 2012

Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Electronic Transactions Act No. 15 of 2006
  • Trade Act (1955)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Japan

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Act on the Protection of Personal Information (2003/2017)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Japan’s government response to COVID-19.

Kazakhstan

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 94-V “On Personal Data and Its Protection” (2013)

  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Cybersecurity provisions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Cellphone data access

Kenya

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Act (2012/2019)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Kenya’s government response to COVID-19.

Kuwait

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Law No. 20 (the E-Commerce Law) (2014)

  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Kyrgyzstan

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on Personal Data No. 58 (2008)

  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Latvia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on Protection of Personal Data of Natural Persons
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Lebanon

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)
  • No data
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Lesotho

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Act (2012)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Breach notification
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Lithuania

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on Legal Protection of Personal Data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Luxembourg

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on Legal Protection of Personal Data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Madagascar

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Law No. 2014-038 relating to protection of personal data (2015)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Malaysia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Personal Data Protection Act (2010)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Malta

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Data Protection Act (2001)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Mauritius

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Act (2017)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Data Protection Act (2001)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Mexico

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Federal Law on the Protection of Personal Data (2010)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data protection officers
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Mexico’s government response to COVID-19.

Moldova

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Law No. 133 on Personal Data Protection (2011)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Monaco

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Data Protection Law No.1462 (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data localization provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Act Controlling Personal Data Processing (1993)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Montenegro

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law on Protection of Personal Data (2008/2017)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Morocco

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Law No 09-08 on the Protection of People Toward Data Protection of a Personal Nature (2009)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Import/export controls
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Mozambique

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Electronic Transactions Law (Law No. 3/2017) (2017)

  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Myanmar

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)
  • No data
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Netherlands

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Personal Data Protection Act (1998)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about the Netherlands’ government response to COVID-19.

New Zealand

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Privacy Amendment Bill (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Breach notification
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • The Privacy Act (1993)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about New Zealand’s government response to COVID-19.

Nigeria

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Consumer Protection Framework (2016)

  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Nigeria Data Protection Regulation Data Protection Bill (2011)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

North Macedonia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law on Personal Data Protection (2005/2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Norway

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Personal Data Act (2000)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Norway’s government response to COVID-19.

Pakistan

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Electronic Data Protection Act (2005)

  • Data localization provisions: Local only
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Cellphone data access

Panama

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Personal Data Protection Bill (FACT, Law No. 81) (2016/2019)

  • National data protection authority
  • Breach notification
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Paraguay

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)
  • No data
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Ley 4868/2013 de Comercio Electrónico
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Peru

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Personal Data Protection Law No. 29733 (2011)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Philippines

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Privacy Act of (2012)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Poland

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Act on the Protection of Personal Data (1997)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Portugal

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Lei Da Prote?ao De dados pessoais (1991) (in Portuguese)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Data subjects are notified of surveillance by intelligence services
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Qatar

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law No. 13 of 2016 Concerning Personal Data Protection (2016)

  • National data protection authority
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Romania

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data (2001)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Russia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Act No. 152 (2006/2014)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Russia’s government response to COVID-19.

Saint Lucia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Data Protection Act 2011

Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Senegal

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Loi No. 2008-12 du 25 Janvier 2008 sur la Protection Des Données à Caractère Personnel (in French) (2008)

Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • General right to encryption
  • Mandatory minimum or maximum encryption strength
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Import/export controls
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Senegal’s government response to COVID-19.

Serbia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Law (2008/2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Cellphone data access

Singapore

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Personal Data Protection Act (2012)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Slovakia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Act on the Protection of Personal Data (1992)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Slovenia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Personal Data Protection Act (1990)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

South Korea

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Personal Information Protection Act (2011)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Data subjects are notified of surveillance by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about South Korea’s government response to COVID-19.

Spain

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Organic Law 15/1999 on Personal Data Protection
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Spain’s government response to COVID-19.

Sweden

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Personal Data Act (1998)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about Sweden’s government response to COVID-19.

Switzerland

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Federal Act on Data Protection (1992/2017)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Switzerland’s government response to COVID-19.

Syria

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)
  • No data
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Taiwan

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Personnal Data Protection Law (2010)

  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about Taiwan’s government response to COVID-19.

Tajikistan

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Personal Data Protection Law, No. 1537 (2018)

  • National data protection authority
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on Protection of Information (December 2, 2002, No. 71)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Thailand

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Personal Data Protection Act (2011/2019)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Trinidad and Tobago

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection Act (2011)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Tunisia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Law No. 2004-63 on the Protection of Personal Data (2004/2016)

  • National data protection authority
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Import/export controls
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Turkey

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law on the Protection of Personal Data No. 6698 (2016)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Read more about Turkey’s government response to COVID-19.

Turkmenistan

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law of Turkmenistan No. 519-V “On Information about Private Life and Its Protection” (2017)

  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

UAE

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Data Protection (Amendment) Regulation (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app

Uganda

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Data Protection and Privacy Act (2015)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Ukraine

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Law of Ukraine No. 2297 VI “On Personal Data Protection” (2010/2013)

  • National data protection authority
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

United Kingdom

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (2018)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Data Protection Act (1998)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
  • Japanese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • Contact tracing app
  • Cellphone data access

Read more about the United Kingdom’s government response to COVID-19.

United States

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Privacy Act of 1974

  • Does not include provisions related to online privacy
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Data subjects have the right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services
  • Companies can challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
  • There are public cases of national intelligence services violating surveillance laws
Encryption Policies
  • Import/export controls
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Read more about the United States’ government response to COVID-19.

Uruguay

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Data Protection Act Law No. 18331 (2008)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data protection officers
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
  • U.S. tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Uzbekistan

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. ZRU-547 “On Personal Data” (2019)

  • National data protection authority
  • Registration requirement
  • Data localization provisions: Conditional restrictions
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Enforcement through fine
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • No data
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Smart city
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Vietnam

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

The Constitution (2013) and Civil Code (2015)

  • Data localization provisions: Local only
  • Cybersecurity provisions
  • Breach notification
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Law on Protection of Consumers’ Rights (2010)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • Intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security
  • Intelligence services are authorized to conduct surveillance for economic purposes
  • Intelligence services can compel companies to provide access to data
Encryption Policies
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Import/export controls
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
  • No data
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Zambia

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Electronic Communications and Transactions Act (2009)

  • National data protection authority
  • Enforcement through fine
  • Online data privacy element
Other Data Privacy Laws
  • No data
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • General right to encryption
  • Licensing/registration requirements
  • Other restrictions
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data

Zimbabwe

Main Data Privacy Laws (Year Enacted/Updated)

Draft Data Protection Bill (2016)

Other Data Privacy Laws
  • Draft Data Protection Bill (2016)
Government Data Collection Laws
  • No data
Encryption Policies
  • Obligations on providers to assist authorities
  • Obligations on individuals to assist authorities
AI Surveillance
Type:
  • Facial recognition
  • Predictive policing
Source:
  • Chinese tech
COVID-19 Tracking
  • No data
SOURCES: DLA PIPER: GLOBAL DATA PROTECTION LAWS OF THE WORLD FULL HANDBOOK, BAKER MCKENZIE – GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE LAW COMPARISON, GLOBAL PARTNERS DIGITAL – WORLD MAP OF ENCRYPTION POLICIES, PRIVACY INTERNATIONAL – THE GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE INDUSTRY, CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT – AI GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE INDEX, PRIVACY INTERNATIONAL – TELECOMMUNICATION DATA AND COVID-19, PRIVACY INTERNATIONAL – APPS AND COVID-19
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